In real life, sometimes people configure applications to use an old or wrong password, or never update the password after it has changed. If an organation is using ADFS you can discover this problem by querying the ADFS servers for events related to the problem.  A similar scenario lies in brute force style bad password submissions against organizations which use Microsoft Cloud services and your organization uses Active Directory account lockout policies to lock user accounts on premise if a certain number of bad passwords are submitted.

This script will help you detect those events on your ADFS servers.

More information about the script:

 

PowerShell
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PARAM ($PastDays = 1, $PastHours#************************************************ 
# ADFSBadCredsSearch.ps1 
# Version 1.0 
# Date: 6-20-2016 
# Author: Tim Springston [MSFT] 
# Description: This script will parse the ADFS server's (not proxy) security ADFS 
#  for events which indicate an incorrectly entered username or password. The script can specify a 
#  past period to search the log for and it defaults to the past 24 hours. Results will be placed into a CSV for  
#  review of UPN, IP address of submitter, and timestamp. 
#************************************************ 
 
cls 
if ($PastHours -gt 0) 
    {$PastPeriod = (Get-Date).AddHours(-($PastHours))} 
    else 
        {$PastPeriod = (Get-Date).AddDays(-($PastDays))    } 
$Outputfile = $Pwd.path + "\BadCredAttempts.csv" 
$CS = get-wmiobject -class win32_computersystem 
$Hostname = $CS.Name + '.' + $CS.Domain 
$Instances = @{} 
$OSVersion = gwmi win32_operatingsystem 
[int]$BN = $OSVersion.Buildnumber  
if ($BN -lt 9200){$ADFSLogName = "AD FS 2.0/Admin"} 
    else {$ADFSLogName = "AD FS/Admin"} 
 
$Users = @() 
$IPAddresses = @() 
$Times = @() 
$AllInstances = @() 
Write-Host "Searching event log for bad credential events..." 
if ($BN -ge 9200) {Get-Winevent  -FilterHashTable @{LogName= "Security"; StartTime=$PastPeriod; ID=411} -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | Where-Object  {$_.Message -match "The user name or password is incorrect"|  % { 
    $Instance = New-Object PSObject 
    $UPN = $_.Properties[2].Value 
    $UPN = $UPN.Split("-")[0] 
    $IPAddress = $_.Properties[4].Value 
    $Users +$UPN 
    $IPAddresses +$IPAddress 
    $Times +$_.TimeCreated 
    add-member -inputobject $Instance -membertype noteproperty -name "UserPrincipalName" -value $UPN 
    add-member -inputobject $Instance -membertype noteproperty -name "IP Address" -value $IPAddress 
    add-member -inputobject $Instance -membertype noteproperty -name "Time" -value ($_.TimeCreated).ToString() 
    $AllInstances +$Instance 
    $Instance = $null 
    } 
} 
 
 
$AllInstances | select * | Export-Csv -Path $Outputfile -append -force -NoTypeInformation  
Write-Host "Data collection finished. The output file can be found at $outputfile`." 
$AllInstances = $null